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Libyan no-fly zone proposals

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Proposed Libyan no-fly zone

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A Wikipedia:no-fly zone over Wikipedia:Libya (NFZ) was proposed during the Wikipedia:2011 Libyan uprising. On 12 March, the Wikipedia:Arab League called on the United Nations Security Council (WP) to impose the no-fly zone.[1][2] Early proposals for enforcement of the no-fly zone include actions by the NATO (WP) and Arab states.[3][4]

The original proposal came from diplomats and political leaders including Libyan deputy Permanent Representative to UN Ambassador Wikipedia:Ibrahim Dabbashi,[5] United Kingdom (WP) Prime Minister Wikipedia:David Cameron[6] and the head of the Libyan Wikipedia:National Transitional Council Wikipedia:Mustafa Abdul Jalil.[7][8]


[edit] Proposal

Several Libyan and international politicians, diplomats and organisations have called for a no-fly zone over Libya.

[edit] Libyans

On February 21, 2011, Libyan deputy Permanent Representative to UN Ambassador Wikipedia:Ibrahim Dabbashi "[called] on the UN to impose a no-fly zone on all Tripoli to cut off all supplies of arms and mercenaries to the regime."[5]

On March 9, 2011, the head of the Libyan Wikipedia:National Transitional Council, Wikipedia:Mustafa Abdul Jalil, "pleaded for the international community to move quickly to impose a no-fly zone over Libya, declaring that any delay would result in more casualties".[7] Three days later, he stated that if pro-Gaddafi forces reached Benghazi, then they would kill "half a million" people. He stated, "If there is no no-fly zone imposed on Gaddafi's regime, and his ships are not checked, we will have a catastrophe in Libya."[8]

On March 12, thousands of Libyan women marched in the streets of the rebel-held town of Wikipedia:Benghazi, calling for the imposition of a no-fly zone over Libya. One of the protestors, Nada el-Turki, stated, "We don't want foreign intervention, we just want a no-fly zone and our boys will do the rest. But they have light weapons in the face of air strikes."[9]

[edit] International

On February 28, Prime Minister Wikipedia:David Cameron of the United Kingdom proposed the idea of a no-fly zone to prevent Wikipedia:Muammar Gaddafi from airlifting mercenaries and using his military aeroplanes and armoured helicopters against civilians.[6]

On March 7, US Ambassador to NATO Wikipedia:Ivo Daalder announced that NATO decided to step up surveillance missions of E-3 AWACS aircraft to 24 hours a day. On the same day it was reported that an anonymous UN diplomat confirmed to AFP that France and Britain were drawing up a resolution on the no-fly zone that would be considered by the United Nations Security Council during the same week.[3][10] The Wikipedia:Gulf Cooperation Council also on that day called upon the Wikipedia:UN Security Council to "take all necessary measures to protect civilians, including enforcing a no-fly zone over Libya."[11]

As of 9th March 2011, the United States (WP) has naval forces positioned off the coast of Libya, as well as forces already in the region - including the aircraft carrier Wikipedia:USS Enterprise (CVN-65). Wikipedia:Canada has dispatched a naval frigate to the area, reinforcing the display of western power. Canadian Defence Minister Wikipedia:Peter MacKay stated, "We are there for all inevitabilities. And NATO is looking at this as well... This is taken as a precautionary and staged measure." Canadian Prime Minister Wikipedia:Stephen Harper stated that the Canadian Air Force is ready to contribute to setting up a no-fly zone if the UN and NATO decided to do this.

Template:wikinews On 12 March, the Wikipedia:Arab League "called on the United Nations Security Council to impose a no-fly zone over Libya in a bid to protect civilians from air attack".[2][1][12] The Arab League's request was announced by Wikipedia:Oman's Wikipedia:Minister of Foreign Affairs, Wikipedia:Yusuf bin Alawi bin Abdullah, who stated that all member states present at the meeting agreed with the proposal.[2]

On 14 March, the Wikipedia:Group of Eight are meeting to discuss their potential support.[13] Germany however, has blocked the plans to impose a no-fly zone.[3]

[edit] Enforcement

Planning for a possible NFZ was made in late February and early March by NATO (WP),[14] especially by NATO members United Kingdom and France (WP).[15] The United Kingdom and France want to establish a no-fly zone but they may not have enough fighter and supporting aircraft available to enforce it because of defense cuts and other obligations such as the occupation of Afghanistan.[3]

The US has the air assets needed, but is cautious about establishing a no-fly zone without a legal basis. Both NATO and the United Nations (WP) might provide this.[3]

Because of the sensitive nature of military action by the US against an Arab nation, it is possible that the US is looking for a joint NATO/Arab enforcement of the no-fly zone. Egypt (WP), Wikipedia:Saudi Arabia and the Wikipedia:United Arab Emirates are possible partners. Since the UAE is the only country without internal unrest and depends on the US for protection against Wikipedia:Iran, it is a likely candidate for enforcing the no-fly zone with NATO. [4][3] On Saturday 12 March the foreign ministers of the Wikipedia:Arab League agreed on asking the United Nations to impose a no-fly zone over Libya. This brings a joint NATO/Arab enforced fly-zone closer to establishing.[3]

[edit] Criticism

[edit] An act of war

According to former Wikipedia:United States Deputy Undersecretary of Defense, Wikipedia:Jed Babbin, the imposition of a no-fly zone over Libya would be "an irresponsible act of war" against the country.[16]

At a Wikipedia:congressional hearing, Wikipedia:United States Secretary of Defense Wikipedia:Robert Gates said that "a no-fly zone begins with an attack on Libya to destroy the air defenses ... and then you can fly planes around the country and not worry about our guys being shot down. But that's the way it starts."[17]

Wikipedia:Foreign Minister of France Wikipedia:Alain Juppe stated that "intervening means waging war".[18]

If the United States were to enforce a NFZ over Libya, it is unclear if it would require an authorization from Congress to use force or authorization by the United Nations (WP). Any such authorization was not granted by Wikipedia:United Nations Security Council Resolution 1970 adopted on February 26, 2011.[19]

[edit] Lack of UN mandate

Wikipedia:United States Secretary of State Wikipedia:Hillary Clinton said that any decision to impose a no-fly zone over Libya should be taken by the United Nations and "not the United States".[20] Wikipedia: British Foreign Secretary Wikipedia:William Hague stated that plans to impose no-fly zone over Libya need "clear legal basis [and] strong international support".[21] Wikipedia:Foreign Minister of France Wikipedia:Alain Juppe said that there should not be any international intervention into the conflict in Libya without prior approval from the United Nations.[22] Wikipedia:Secretary General of NATO Wikipedia:Anders Fogh Rasmussen stated that "the imposition of a no-fly zone would ... require a new United Nations mandate."[23]

Wikipedia:Russian Foreign Minister Wikipedia:Sergey Lavrov described the idea of imposing limits on Libyan air space as "superfluous" and Russian NATO ambassador Wikipedia:Dmitri Rogozin stated that: "A ban on the national air force or civil aviation to fly over their own territory is still a serious interference into the domestic affairs of another country".[24]

Wikipedia:Permanent Representative of China (WP) to the United Nations Wikipedia:Li Baodong stated, "We believe that this political crisis should be resolved through peaceful means such as dialogue" and that China "[respects] the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of Libya."[24]

As permanent members of the Wikipedia:Security Council, Russia and China could both Wikipedia:veto any draft resolution to authorize a no-fly zone.[24]

[edit] Perception of interference

Wikipedia:Sami Hermez, an anthropologist from Wikipedia:Princeton University, argues that "while many have called for a no-fly zone, this would effectively equal military intervention ... a scenario that would surely win Gaddafi many more supporters" and that "aiding opposition forces by supplying them with military capabilities will only make it easier for Gaddafi and his loyalists to cast these forces as unpatriotic tools of 'Western' interests".[25]

Wikipedia:Secretary of State Wikipedia:Hillary Clinton stated before the Wikipedia:Senate Foreign Relations Committee that: "The tough issues about how and whether there would be any intervention to assist those who are opposing Libya is very controversial within Libya and within the Arab community".[26]

[edit] Complexity of operation

According to chairman of the Wikipedia:Joint Chiefs of Staff Wikipedia:Admiral Wikipedia:Mike Mullen, a no-fly zone would be "an extraordinarily complex operation to set up."[27]

Wikipedia:Secretary of Defense Wikipedia:Robert Gates stated that more air assets would need to be moved into the vicinity of Libya and that the operation also would require "more airplanes than you would find on a single Wikipedia:aircraft carrier ... it is a big operation in a big country."[26]

On March 9, Wikipedia:Secretary General of NATO Wikipedia:Anders Fogh Rasmussen stressed that "the imposition of a no-fly zone would be quite a complicated undertaking".[23]

According to the Wikipedia:Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, establishing and maintaining a no-fly zone over Libya could cost the Wikipedia:US Department of Defense up to $300 million a week (or around $15 billion a year) under scenarios formulated by the Wikipedia:think tank.[28]

On the contrary Gen. Wikipedia:Merrill McPeak, a former US Air Force chief of staff, told the NYTimes: “I can’t imagine an easier military problem.” His plan concentrates on flights over those parts of the country that Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi doesn’t control. That would remove the need to attack and take out Libyian air defense systems.[29]

[edit] Questionable effectiveness

United States (US) Ambassador to NATO Wikipedia:Ivo Daalder stated that: "[I]t's important to understand that no-fly zones...really have a limited effect against the helicopters or the kind of ground operations that we've seen, which is why a no-fly zone, even if it were to be established, isn't really going to impact what is happening there today. And the kinds of capabilities that are being used to attack the rebel forces and, indeed, the population will be largely unaffected by a no-fly zone."[30]

According to Wikipedia:Richard Haass, the president of the US Wikipedia:think tank Wikipedia:Council on Foreign Relations, "there is no reason to believe a no-fly zone would be decisive. In fact, we have every reason to believe it would not be, given that aircraft and helicopters are not central to the regime's military advantages." Haass argues that regime could defeat the opposition with no air support, simply by exploiting its advantages in terms of ground forces.[31]

At a hearing before the Wikipedia:House Appropriations Committee on March 10, Wikipedia:US Secretary of State Wikipedia:Hillary Clinton reminded the audience that:

...we had a no-fly zone over Wikipedia:Iraq. It did not prevent Wikipedia:Saddam Hussein from slaughtering people on the ground and it did not get him out of office. We had a no-fly zone and then we had 78 days of bombing in Wikipedia:Serbia. It did not get Wikipedia:Milosevic out of office. It did not get him out of Wikipedia:Kosovo until we put troops on the ground with our allies.[32]

[edit] Risk of co-option

Wikipedia:Richard Haass argues that:

"It is one thing to acknowledge Moammar Gadhafi as a ruthless despot, which he has demonstrated himself to be. But doing so does not establish the democratic Wikipedia:bona fides of those who oppose him. And even if some of those opposing him are genuine democrats, there is no reason to assume that helping to remove the regime would result in the ascendancy of such people."

According to Haass, removing Gadaffi by force could "easily set in motion a chain of events in which a different strongman, with the backing of a different tribe, took over" or create a power vacuum exploitable by Wikipedia:al Qaeda and similar groups.[31]

[edit] See also

Wikinews has related news: Arab League calls for Libyan no-fly zone

[edit] References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Perry, Tom (2011-03-12). "Arab League calls for Libya no-fly zone-state TV". Wikipedia:Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 2011-03-12. http://www.webcitation.org/5x8RsHSEV. Retrieved 2011-03-12.</li>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Arab states seek Libya no-fly zone". Wikipedia:Al Jazeera English. 2011-03-12. Archived from the original on 2011-03-12. http://www.webcitation.org/5x8SNONMj. Retrieved 2011-03-12.</li>
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Libyan Air Force during the revolt: timeline of events. Zurf Military Aircraft. URL accessed on 15 March 2011.</li>
  4. 4.0 4.1 UAE afraid of Iranian air attack. Zurf Military Aircraft. URL accessed on 11 March 2011.</li>
  5. 5.0 5.1 Libyan Ambassador to UN urges international community to stop genocide | Libya Politics. Global Arab Network. URL accessed on 2011-03-10.</li>
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Cameron Doesn't Rule Out Military Force for Libya". The Wall Street Journal. 28 February 2011. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704615504576172383796304482.html?mod=googlenews_wsj. Retrieved 28 February 2011.</li>
  7. 7.0 7.1 By the CNN Wire Staff. Rebel leader calls for 'immediate action' on no-fly zone - CNN.com. Edition.cnn.com. URL accessed on 2011-03-10.</li>
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Gaddafi's army will kill half a million, warn Libyan rebels". The Guardian. 2011-03-12. Archived from the original on 2011-03-12. http://www.webcitation.org/5x8el68bX. Retrieved 2011-03-12.</li>
  9. "Thousands of Libyan women march for "no-fly zone"". Wikipedia:NOW Lebanon/AFP. 2011-03-12. Archived from the original on 2011-03-13. http://www.webcitation.org/5x9MvC97t. Retrieved 2011-03-13.</li>
  10. "Britain, France ready Libya no-fly zone resolution" by Pierre-Antoine Donnet (AFP)</li>
  11. Gulf states back Libya no-fly zone - The West Australian. Au.news.yahoo.com. URL accessed on 2011-03-13.</li>
  12. BREAKING: Arab League calls on UN to impose No Fly Zone on Libya. Archived from source 2011-03-12. URL accessed on 2011-03-12.</li>
  13. G8 leaders consider Libya no-fly zone, BBC News, 14 March 2011</li>
  14. Julian Borger, diplomatic editor. Nato weighs Libya no-fly zone options | World news | guardian.co.uk. Guardian. URL accessed on 2011-03-10.</li>
  15. BBC News - Libya: UK and French no-fly zone plan gathers pace. Bbc.co.uk. URL accessed on 2011-03-10.</li>
  16. May, Caroline No-Fly Zone Libya | Critics Call Libyan No-Fly Zone Act Of War | The Daily Caller - Breaking News, Opinion, Research, and Entertainment. The Daily Caller. URL accessed on 2011-03-10.</li>
  17. U.S. mulling military options in Libya - CNN. Articles.cnn.com. URL accessed on 2011-03-10.</li>
  18. Embassy of France. Libya/refugees – Military options - No-fly zone – UfM role - France in the United States/ Embassy of France in Washington. Ambafrance-us.org. URL accessed on 2011-03-10.</li>
  19. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/03/world/africa/03military.html</li>
  20. Libya no-fly zone a UN decision, 'not US': Clinton - Yahoo! News. News.yahoo.com. URL accessed on 2011-03-10.</li>
  21. BBC News - World cannot stand aside from Libya, says Cameron. Bbc.co.uk. URL accessed on 2011-03-10.</li>
  22. France: No-Fly Zone Over Libya - Only With UN Approval | News | English. Voanews.com. URL accessed on 2011-03-10.</li>
  23. 23.0 23.1 NATO chief says no plans to intervene in Libya | Reuters. Uk.reuters.com. URL accessed on 2011-03-13.</li>
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 Varner, Bill China Joins Russia in Signaling Potential Opposition to Libya No-Fly Zone. Bloomberg. URL accessed on 2011-03-10.</li>
  25. Sami Hermez. Libya and the folly of intervention - Opinion. Al Jazeera English. URL accessed on 2011-03-10.</li>
  26. 26.0 26.1 From Elise Labott, CNN Senior State Department Producer. U.S. mulling military options in Libya - CNN.com. Edition.cnn.com. URL accessed on 2011-03-10.</li>
  27. News Transcript: DOD News Briefing with Secretary Gates and Adm. Mullen from the Pentagon. Defense.gov. URL accessed on 2011-03-10.</li>
  28. Bennett, John T. Defense group: Libyan no-fly zone could cost $300 million a week. TheHill.com. URL accessed on 2011-03-13.</li>
  29. [1]</li>
  30. "U.S. Ambassador to NATO: No-fly zone wouldn’t help much" by Josh Rogin</li>
  31. 31.0 31.1 Haass, Richard N. Richard Haass: The U.S. Should Keep Out of Libya - WSJ.com. Online.wsj.com. URL accessed on 2011-03-10.</li>
  32. Clinton warns against unilateral U.S. move on Libya | Reuters. Uk.reuters.com. URL accessed on 2011-03-13.</li></ol>

[edit] External links

Template:2011 Libyan protests

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